Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9 THC) is a psychoactive compound found in cannabis plants, especially marijuana plants. It is well known to cannabis users as it is the cannabinoid responsible for producing an intoxicating high. Delta-9 THC may be used for medicinal purposes, for the treatment of conditions such as multiple sclerosis, seizures, glaucoma, cancer, PTSD, insomnia, and chronic pain. Like most chemical compounds, Delta-9 THC induces certain side effects, especially when taken in high doses. Commonly experienced side effects include hallucinations, paranoia, increased heart rates, increased blood pressure, changes in perception, and anxiety.
Because Delta-9 is still classified as a Schedule I Controlled Substance in the United States, it is federally illegal. However, many states have legalized Delta-9 THC for medicinal or recreational purposes. Delta-9 THC products are available as vape cartridges, gummies, tinctures, oils, and concentrates.
Marijuana-derived Delta-9 THC is only legal for patients registered under the Ohio Medical Marijuana Control Program (OMMCP). Marijuana-derived Delta-9 THC products available to qualified patients may contain no more than 0.3% Delta-9 THC. HB 523 created the OMMCP in 2016, allowing patients, with physicians’ recommendations, to purchase Delta-9 THC products within the stipulated limits. If you have completed an OMMCP registration and a physician recommendation, you may purchase up to 4.45 grams of Delta-9 THC in edible form every 45 days.
Hemp-derived Delta-9 THC products became legal in the United States under the 2018 Farm Bill. The bill permitted United States citizens to purchase hemp-derived Delta-9 products, provided the Delta-9 THC concentration does not exceed 0.3%. Ohio followed the federal hemp decriminalization bill with one of its own by enacting SB 57 in 2019. This legalized the cultivation, processing, sale, and possession of hemp and hemp-derived products containing no more than 0.3%. The state does not limit the amount or quantity of hemp-derived Delta-9 products that residents may purchase. Hemp-derived Delta-9 products may be purchased from retail shops and online vendors. Retail online businesses outside Ohio are also permitted to ship hemp-derived Delta-9 products into the state.
Delta-8 THC is an isomer of Delta-9 THC occurring in limited quantities in cannabis plants. Due to its low levels in cannabis, processors can either painstakingly extract it as a concentrate from cannabis plant materials or synthesize it from CBD. On the other hand, Delta-9 occurs abundantly in cannabis plants and does not require as much effort to extract.
As both isomers belong to the Delta THC family, they bind and interact with the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the body's endocannabinoid system (ECS) in similar ways. The only difference in the interaction with ECS is accounted for by the structural difference in the molecular configurations of both isomers. Delta-8's double bond exists on its eighth carbon chain, while Delta-9's double bond is positioned on its ninth carbon ring.
Delta-9's effect on the body is well known among cannabis users as it typically induces a euphoric high. By binding with the CB1 receptors in the brain, it produces strong psychoactive impacts, such as elation. Delta-8 also produces psychoactive effects on users, but such effects are much milder and less impactful than those associated with Delta-9. Delta-8 has therapeutic values and may be used to obtain relief from insomnia and pain and reduce anxiety and inflammation. Persons looking to experience the medicinal benefits of THC without being intoxicated may prefer Delta-8 THC to Delta-9 THC.
Delta-10 THC is a recently discovered isomer of Delta-9 THC that occurs in minute quantities in cannabis plants. Delta-10, like Delta-9, interacts with the endocannabinoid system via CB1 and CB2 receptors to produce psychoactive effects. Due to the lack of research on Delta-10 THC, the majority of the information on the compound is based on anecdotal evidence.
The name Delta-10 is derived from the location of its double carbon bond on the tenth carbon ring in its molecular structure. Although naturally occurring in cannabis, especially hemp plants, the available quantities of Delta-10 THC are too low for cannabis processors to extract quickly. In order to obtain Delta-10 THC, it is often synthesized from other cannabinoids.
Compared to Delta-9 THC, which induces an intoxicating high in users, Delta-10 THC has much milder effects. Its psychoactive effects are even milder than those of Delta-8. Users of Delta-10 typically experience energizing effects that increase productivity. Many first-time cannabis consumers favor Delta-10 use because it provides a mild high without the side effects of Delta-9 THC, which can impair coordination.
The majority of Delta-10 THC products are legal under the 2018 Farm Bill, which legalized hemp plant derivatives containing no more than 0.3% Delta-9 THC.
When consumed, Delta-9 THC is broken down in the liver, forming metabolites which may later be released into the body. Hence, due to the creation of THC metabolites, Delta-9 THC may remain in the body for much longer after its physical or visible effects have worn off. These metabolites may be detected by drug tests, such as blood, urine, saliva, and hair follicle tests for up to 90 days after the last dose.
However, the period in which Delta-9 THC remains in the body depends on several factors, such as:
Note that drug tests do not specifically test for Delta-9 THC metabolites. Regardless of the Delta THC isomer taken, drug tests will only check for THC metabolites. Because Delta THC isomers are broken down in similar ways by the liver, they produce identical metabolites readily detected by drug tests.
Marijuana-derived Delta-9 gummies may be purchased by qualified medical marijuana patients and their caregivers at approved medical marijuana dispensaries in Ohio. Hemp-derived Delta-9 gummies are available to interested persons from hemp shops, convenience stores, and online vendors.
Delta-9 gummies are safe to consume and may intoxicate consumers if they contain more than 0.3% Delta-9 THC and are consumed in high doses. However, hemp-derived Delta-9 gummies are unlikely to have intoxicating effects on consumers.